Possible if you have a cut on your hand or other parts of your body. The virus can only enter the body through a cut (or a bite) or if the virus comes into contact with a mucous membrane, such as those in your eye or mouth. Mucous membranes do not have layers of dead skin cells between them and the environment. The skin is normally protected by a thick layer of dead skin cells, but a cut removes that protection and allows germs, toxins and viruses to gain entry into your body.
In the final stages of rabies, the virus in present in large numbers in the animal’s saliva. However, at that stage an animal is unable to swallow and is afraid of water. The reason is that the virus has evolved to do that to an animal by attacking its brain. Water will dilute the concentration of virus, making it much less likely to infect by biting. So, if anything, the rain may have lowered any risk of virus transmission by diluting any saliva that may be present in your garbage can. You can examine your hands and arms to see if you have any cuts. When in doubt, go see a doctor and tell him/her your concern. If and when symptoms appear, it would be too late.